Course of Raku / Essentials / Ranges

# Excluding endpoints

To exclude one of the edges or both of them, modify the range creation operator with the `^`

character. There are three more operators that can be constructed in such a way. The comments list the numbers that the ranges generate.

```
1 ..^ 5; # 1, 2, 3, 4
1 ^.. 5; # 2, 3, 4, 5
1 ^..^ 5; # 2, 3, 4
```

In simple cases as shown above, you can omit the spaces around the range operator:

```
my $r1 = 1..5;
my $r2 = 1..^5;
```

For a range that start with 0, such as `0..^5`

, there exists a shortcut syntax: `^5`

.

## Course navigation

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